Halogen lamp working principle

How does a halogen lamp work? A Halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp. It is also called Tungsten Halogen or quartz-halogen or quartz iodine lamp. It consists of a tungsten filament that is sealed in a transparent envelope. This envelope is filled with an inert gas mixture. The inert gas mixture consists of a small … Read more

Different types of battery cells and their uses

An electric cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy to produce electricity. It contains two electrodes immersed in an electrolyte called Anode and Cathode. A number of electric cells are connected together to form a battery. When a cell or battery is connected to a circuit, electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive … Read more

Domestic electric circuit explanation

The electricity generated from the power station is distributed to domestic and industrial users by overhead and underground cables. The first stage of the domestic circuit is to get the power supply to the main box from a distribution panel like a transformer. The main components of the main box are the Fuse Box and … Read more

Led Bulb working Principle

Working principle of Led A led bulb is a semiconductor device that emits light when electricity passed through it. The colour of the light depends on the material used in the led making. With the help of chemical compounds like Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Phosphide, a Led bulb that gives red, green, yellow, and orange … Read more

Periodic table with Valency

1H 2He 3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 😯 9F 10Ne 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe 55Cs … Read more

Bones and muscles in the Human body

Bones and muscles in the Human body

Bones and Joints The adult human skeleton consists of 206 bones. The bones along with approximately 700 skeletal muscles account for 50% of our body weight. Bones provide protection and support. When two or more bones join together, a joint or articulation is formed. Several types of joints help in movements. Muscles Muscles are elastic … Read more

Classification of Materials in electronics

Classification of Materials in electronics

Classification of Materials Solids are classified into insulators, metals, and semiconductors. Insulators The valence band and the conductor band are separated from each other by an enormous energy gap. The energy gap between the valence band and the conductor is approximately 6eV. The energy gap is enormous, and even high voltage or electric field or … Read more

What is an oscillator explain transistor as an oscillator?

What is oscillator explain transistor as an oscillator

What is an oscillator? The oscillator is a mechanical or electrical apparatus that produces periodic fluctuation. Or it is a device that produces a repeated waveform. What is oscillation? It’s a movement back and forth. Example: Pendulum of a clock. hands of the clock. Transistor as Oscillator An electronic oscillator basically converts dc energy into … Read more

Semiconductor optoelectronic devices applications

Semiconductor optoelectronic devices applications

Optoelectric devices The devices that convert electrical energy into light and light into electrical energy through semiconductors. Example of Optoelectric devices is Light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and solar cells. Light Emitting Diode (LED) LED is a p-n junction diode that emits visible or invisible light when forward biased. The electrical energy is converted into light energy … Read more

Zener diode characteristics and applications

Zener diode characteristics and applications

Zener diode is a reverse-biased heavily doped silicon diode named after the invention by C.Zener. Zener diode is specially designed to operate in the breakdown region. The doping level of silicon diodes can be varied as per breakdown voltages needed from 2V to 1000 V.  The maximum reverse bias applied before entering into the Zener … Read more

* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.