Types of farming in India and their main features Upsc

Types of Farming

There are primarily six types of farming, particularly practised in India. They are Subsistence farming, Shifting Agriculture, Intensive farming, Dry Farming, Mixed farming and Terrace farming.

a) Subsistence Farming

Poor farmers with small land holding grow crops with the help of family members with little or no modern inputs. In this type of farming the farmer use the entire agricultural farm, they get little surplus to sell in the market.

In addition, food crops such as cotton, jute, oilseeds, tobacco, and sugarcane are cultivated. As a result of using the traditional method, productivity is low. Parts of Rajasthan, UP, and Madhya Pradesh are the places where subsistence farming is practised.

Modern Facilities such as irrigation, electricity, machines etc are not available to this. The farming is done manually.

b) Shifting Agriculture

Shifting agriculture is performed in forest land by tribal people, mostly. Farmland is created after cutting and burning trees.

Crops are grown until the soil is fertile, for two, three years. Then the farmer move to a new piece of land after the soil loses its fertility also called “Slash and Burn Cultivation“.

This type of agriculture is called Jhum in Assam, Poonam in Kerala, Podu in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha, and Beewar, Mashan, Penda, Beera in Madhya Pradesh.

c) Intensive Farming

It is a method of agriculture where the latest technologies and intensification methods are used to maximize the yield.

Also used for livestock such cows, pigs, and chickens raised in the indoors. It is also known as Factory Farms.

Intensive farming is practised in Rajasthan, UP, Madhya Pradesh.

d) Dry Farming

Dry Farming is also called Dryland Farming. In this farming, the cultivation of crops is practised in areas where irrigation is lacking, Like arid areas, typically less than 50 centimetres of precipitation annually. Dryland farming is based on efficient storage and utilization of limited moisture in the soil.

Also, crops selection is important for Dry farming. Dry climate withstanding crops are grown with the help of irrigation also grown under dry farming. The tilling is done in the land shortly after the harvest to capture the moisture from the air.

The moisture is regulated in the primary by removal of weeds and by runoff prevention. The Dry farming crops are selected, to be drought resistant or drought evasive. Example: Sorghum. This is because such crops reduce transpiration or reduce the emission of moisture and stop their growth. And resumes its growth after the conditions are favourable.

Yield is low and only one crop per year. This is practised in Drier parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, etc.

e) Mixed Farming Agriculture

It is a method of agriculture where crops, livestock, fisheries, beekeeping, etc. are done in the same place.

Cropping pattern in India - Mixed Farming Agriculture
Mixed Farming Picture

f) Terrace Cultivation

Terrace Cultivation is practised in hilly areas, where there are slops, and the availability of flat land is limited. Soil erosion is also checked by Terrace farming.

Used in Hilly areas. Terrace cultivation is practised in Punjab, Meghalaya, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand.

Agriculture seasons in India
Cropping Seasons in India

* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.