Resource sharing between union and state governments Upsc

Central State Financial Relationship

(I) Union Sources

The Centre sources include Corporation tax, Currency, coinage and legal tender, foreign exchange, Duties of customs including export duties, Duties of excise on tobacco and certain goods manufactured or produced in India, Estate duty in respect of property other than agricultural land, Fees in respect of any of the matters in the Union List, but not including any fees taken in any Court.

Also Foreign Loans, Lotteries organized by the Government of India or the Government of a State, Post Office Savings Bank, Posts and Telegraphs, telephones, wireless, broadcasting, and other forms of communication.

Property of the Union, Public Debt of the Union, Railways, Rates of the stamp duty in respect of Bills of Exchange, Cheques, Promissory Notes, etc.

Reserve Bank of India, Taxes on income other than agricultural income, Taxes on the capital value of the assets, exclusive of agricultural land of individuals and companies.

Taxes other than stamp duties on transactions in stock exchanges and futures markets, Taxes on the sale or purchase of newspapers and on advertisements published therein, Terminal taxes on goods or passengers, carried by railways, sea, or air.

(II) State Sources

Capitation tax, Duties in respect of succession to agricultural land, Duties of excise on certain goods produced or manufactured in the State, such as alcoholic liquids, opium, etc.

Estate duty in respect of agricultural land, Fees in respect of any of the matters in the State List, but not including fees taken in any Court.

Land Revenue, Rates of the stamp duty in respect of documents other than those specified in the Union List, Taxes on agricultural income, Taxes on land and buildings.

Taxes on mineral rights, subject to limitations imposed by Parliament relating to mineral development, Taxes on the consumption or sale of electricity.

Taxes on the entry of goods into a local area for consumption, use, or sale therein, Taxes on the sale and purchase of goods other than newspapers, Taxes on the advertisements other than those published in newspapers.

Taxes on goods and passengers carried by road or on inland waterways, Taxes on vehicles, Taxes on animals and boats.

Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments, Taxes on luxuries, including taxes on entertainments, amusements, betting and gambling, Tolls.

Taxes Levied and Collected by the union but Assigned to the States (Art.269)

Duties in respect of succession to property other than agricultural land, Estate duty in respect of property other than agricultural land.

Taxes on railway fares and freights, Taxes other than stamp duties on transactions in stock exchanges and futures markets.

Taxes on the sale or purchase of newspapers and on advertisements published therein, Terminal taxes on goods or passengers carried by railways, sea, or air.

Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than newspapers where such sale or purchase takes place in the course of inter-State trade or commerce.

(IV) Duties levied by the Union but collected and Appropriated by the states (Art.268)

Stamp duties and duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparation ( those mentioned in the Union List ) shall be levied by the Government of India but shall be collected.

In the case where such duties are leviable within any Union territory, by the Government of India. In other cases, by the States within which such duties are respectively leviable.

Taxes which are Levied and Collected by the Union but which may be distributed between the Union and the States (Arts.270 and 272).

Taxes on income other than agricultural income. Union duties of excise other than such duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparations as are mentioned in the Union List and collected by the Government of India.

“Taxes on income” does not include corporation tax. The distribution of income-tax proceeds between the Union and the States is made on the recommendations of the Finance Commission.

How the distribution of financial resources is done between the Union government and state government?

The constitution provides details of the distribution of financial resources between the Union and States. The Central government gets its main income from the sources which are given in the Union List.

State government levy tax on things mentioned in the state list.

How are the sources of revenue distributed between the central and state government in India?

The constitution provides distribution of revenue and gives exclusive power to the state to collect taxes and some exclusive power rest with the Central. The distribution of revenue is mentioned in Article 278 to Article 281.

What is the major share in the revenue of state governments?

The main source of state revenue includes VAT(Value Added Tax) on Fuel, state excise on Liquor, property tax, and tax on vehicles.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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