Soil minerals and natural resources Tnpsc

Metallic are of two types: Ferrous and Non-Ferrous. Ferrous minerals have iron content such as iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt, tungsten, etc.

Non-Ferrous Minerals- do not have iron content such as gold, silver, copper, bauxite, etc.

Non-Metallic minerals

Nonmetallic minerals do not contain metals, such as mica, limestone, gypsum, potash, and coal. Non-metallic minerals are also called mineral fuels, such as coal and petroleum.

Distribution of minerals

It is estimated that about 100 different minerals are known to be produced in India, out of the 30 are important.

Most of the metallic minerals are found in the peninsular plateau regions, especially in old crystalline rocks. Mineral distribution is concentrated in three belts. Maybe some occurrence here and there is in isolated pockets.

The three belts are the northeastern plateau, southwestern plateau, and northwestern region.

Metallic Minerals

Iron Ore

Iron is not found in pure form, it is often mixed with lime, magnesium, phosphorous, silicon, etc. There are four types of iron ore are Haematite, Magnetite, Limonite, Siderite.

Haematite is reddish in color, also known as red ochre. It contains 60-70% of iron.

Magnetite

The ore color is dark brown to blackish and is called black ore. It has magnetic properties. It contains 70% of iron.

Siderite

It is an inferior variety of iron ore and has many impurities and also called iron carbonate. It contains 20 to 40% of iron.

Limonite

It is yellow or light brown n color, it is called hydrated iron oxide when the iron ore is mixed with oxygen and water. Its mining is cheaper and easier. It contains 40 to 60% of iron.

Iron ore reserves

India has 20% of the world’s total iron reserves. About 75% of the total reserves of the iron ore in India are of haematite grade.

Jharkhand, Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, and Goa, have 97% of the total iron ore reserves of India.

Manganese

It is a silver-grey element and it is very hard and brittle. Manganese is always available as a combination with iron, laterite, and other minerals.

Uses

It is widely used in iron and steel manufacturing. Also used for making various alloys. Used in making of batteries, bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, etc.

Manganese ore reserves

Found in Odisha (44%), Karnataka (22%), Madhya Pradesh (12%), Maharashtra(7%), Goa (7%), Andra Pradesh (4%), Jharkhand (2%).

Also found in Rajasthan Gujarat, Telangana, and West Bengal. The leading producers of Manganese Ore are Nagpur, Bhandara, ratnagiri districts of Maharastra.

Madya Pradesh

Balaghat, Chhindwara districts.

Odisha

Sundargarh, Kalahandi, Koraput, and Bolangir districts are the major ones.

Other producers are:

Andhra Pradesh (13%)

Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Cuddapah, and Guntur districts.

Karnataka (6%)

Districts of Shimoga, Bellary, Chitradurga, and Tumkur.

Copper

Copper is an important metal that is used by prehistoric men. Bronze is an alloy of Copper, Zinc, and tin. Copper is used for making Electrical wires, Cooking utensils, etc.

Copper Ore Reserves

Rajasthan state has the largest copper reserve in the country that providing 53.81% of the total produce. It is followed by Jharkhand with 19.54% and Madhya Pradesh with 18.75%.

Other producers are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal. Together these states account for 7.9%.

Rajasthan

Khetri, Alwar, and Bhilwara districts.

Uttarakhand

Dehradun and Garhwal Districts

Andra Pradesh

Guntur, Kurnool, and Nellore districts

Karnataka

Chitradurga and Hassan districts.

Bauxite

Bauxite is an important ore of Aluminium. This ore is found in rocks consisting mainly of hydrated aluminium. It is distributed in the areas of laterite soil.

Aluminium is lightweight and is used in the manufacturing of aircraft, automobile engines, manufacture of cement, various chemicals, etc.

Bauxite deposits are mainly found in Odisha (50.2%), Gujarat(15.8%), Jharkhand(11.9%), Maharashtra(9.9%), Chhattisgarh (6.2%) and Tamil Nadu (2.7%).

Non-Metallic Minerals

The Non-Metallic Minerals include Mica, limestone, gypsum, nitrate, potash, dolomite, coal, petroleum, etc

Mica

Mica is used in the electrical industry, as insulating material as it withstands high voltage and has a low power loss factor. Abhrak is a top-quality mica. Mica is translucent. It can be easily split into thin sheets.

It is also used in making lubricants, medicines, paints, and varnishes.

Mica Ore Reserves

Mica deposits are found in Andhra Pradesh(41%), Rajasthan(21%), and Odisha (20%).

Andra Pradesh

Nellore, Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, and Krishna

Rajasthan

Bhilwara, Jaipur, and Ajmer districts

Odisha

Rayagada, Bolangir, and Sundargarh districts

Jharkhand

Palamu, Ranchi, and Singhbum districts.

Limestone

These are rocks that are composed of calcium carbonate or the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium or both. The limestones also contain little silica, alumina, iron oxides, phosphorous, and sulphur.

These are used in making soda ash, caustic soda, bleaching powder, cement, steel plants, glass, fertilizers, and paper.

Limestone Ore Reserves

Andra Pradesh and Telangana produce most limestones ores with 20% each. Rajasthan (20%), Madhya Pradesh (12%), Tamil Nadu (8.4%), Karnataka has the most limestone reserves (27%), followed by Andra Pradesh and Rajasthan (12% each), Gujarat (10%), Meghalaya (9%), Telangana (8%), Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh (5% each) and the remaining by other states.

Andra Pradesh

Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Guntur districts

Telangana

Nalgonda, Adilabad, Warangal and Karimnagar

Rajasthan

Jodhpur, Ajmer, Bikhaner and Kota

Madhya Pradesh

Jabalpur and Satna Districts

Tamilnadu

Salem, Kancheepuram, Tiruchirappalli, Thoothukkudi, Tirunelveli, and Virudhunagar districts.

Gypsum

Gypsum is hydrated sulphate of calcium. It is white, opaque. These are found in the beds of sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone, and shale.

It is used in the manufacture of cement, fertilizers, plaster of Paris, etc. It is also used in conditioning soil.

Gypsum Ore Reserve

Rajasthan state accounts for 81% of the total reserve in the country. Also, there is a 14% reserve in Jammu and Kashmir and a 2% Reserve in Tamil Nadu.

Also, 3% of resources were present in the states of Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.

Rajasthan produces 82% of the country, Jammu and Kashmir produce 14%, and other states such as Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu produces 4% each.

Rajasthan

Jodhpur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer

Jammu and Kashmir

Baramula, Doda and Uri

Gujarat

Bhavnagar and Jamnagar

Uttarkhand

Dehradun and Mussourrie

Andhra Pradesh

Nellore, Guntur, and Prakasam District

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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