Crops in India Upsc
1. Food crops
Farming in India is mostly food crops. Foods include Rice, Jowar, Wheat, Bajra, Maize, Barley, Ragi, Gram, and Tur.
Rice is an indigenous crop in India and India is the second-largest rice producer in the world after China.
It is mainly grown in a tropical areas, where the mean temperature is 24 C and annual rainfall of 150 cm, and High Humidity.
Deep fertile, clay, or loamy soils suited for rice cultivation.
It is sown in three methods.
ii) Plough or drilling
Due to the use of HYV seeds such as CRR 451, CR Dhan 205, AR Dhan 306, etc many indigenous seeds variety disappeared.
Major Rice Producing States in India
Most rice-producing states in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Assam, and Haryana.
A second most important crop in the country. Account for more than 22% of the total area and 34 % of the total food production grains in the country.
It requires a temperature of 10-15 degrees Celsius while sowing and 20-25 degree Celsius at the ripening time.
This rabi crop requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the ripening time and also it requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season.
The two important wheat-growing zones in Indias are the Ganga-Satluj plains in the North-West and the Black Soil Region of the Deccan.
Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, and Madhya Pradesh account for 85% of India’s wheat production. Black soil regions Deccan such as Maharashtra and Gujarat also produce Wheat.
As an Indigenous crop of Africa, it is the third most important food in India. It grows in adverse climatic conditions.
It is cheap food with a lot of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, minerals, and vitamins. Due to cheap prices, it is food for the poor and fodder for animals. Produced in Peninsular, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka.
It is from Africa and serves as the staple food for the poor and fodder for animals. Its stalks are used for thatching purposes.
It is a crop in the drying region. Largely produced in Maharashtra, Haryana, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh.
It is an important cereal for the poor also used to make Barley water, Beer, and Whiskey. Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are major Producing states.
It is the major source of protein for vegetarians. These are mostly leguminous.
Its husk is used as fodder for cattle. These leguminous plants help to fix nitrogen in the soil usually rotated with other crops.
Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra are major producing states.