This article is written for Tnpsc: Employment Generation in Indian Economy.
Employment generation is the process of social development that gives people employment opportunities to meet their basic needs.
The Problem of poverty can be removed by providing employment and increasing the productivity of a low level of employment.
The government is taking several steps to remove poverty from the country. Employment Generation in the Indian Economy is done by Land Reforms, Employment generation, rural development, and several other schemes.
The land reforms were passed by the state governments, in order to improve the economic conditions of agricultural landless laborers. Example: Zamindari System is abolished.
Tenancy laws are passed by the state for protecting the Tenants. Tenancy laws help tenants to acquire possession over the land they cultivate.
Also, the state governments have passed legislation on the land ceilings on agriculture. That is the maximum amount of land a person can hold is fixed by law. The surplus lands are distributed to the landless laborers and small peasants.
Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)
It was introduced in April 1999 and it is a successor to Jawahar Rozgar Yojana. Its aim was to develop rural areas.
The cost-sharing is 75:25 between the Union and States. Infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, and schools was developed.
Another objective is to give sustained wage employment. This was given only to the people below the poverty line. The funds need to be spent for beneficiary schemes for SCs and STs.
3% Infrastructure allowed to disabled people.
National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
NSAP is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. It was launched on August 15, 1995, by Article 41.
As per Article 41, the state should provide assistance to its people in case of unemployment, old age, sickness, and disablement. By that, the government provides financial assistance to the elderly, widows, and persons with disabilities.
In 1995, NSAP included three components, they are NOAPS (National Old Age Pension, NFBS (National Family Benefit Scheme), and NMBS (National Maternity Benefit Scheme).
In 2000, Annapurna Yojana was added to its by providing 10 kg of free rice to the beneficiaries who are covered in NOAPS.
In 2001, National Maternity Benefit Scheme is transferred to the Department of Family Welfare. In 2007, NSAP is renamed Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS).
In 2009, NSAP was extended to widows of age 40-64 by Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS) and also to disabilities affecting people who are aged 18-64 and living below the poverty line by Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme.
Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)
It was started on October 2, 1993, in 1778 backward blocks in drought-prone, desert, tribal, and hill areas. It was expanded to cover all the 5,488 rural blocks of the country.
It gave wage employment to the rural poor. In September 2001, it was merged into the new Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana along with Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana.
Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)
It was introduced in the Budget for 2000-2001 with an allocation of Rs. 5,000 crore. Its focus is on health, primary education, drinking water, housing, and rural roads.
Common Property Rights in grazing lands, wastelands, forests, and water resources were made available to the rural people in the past.
They have been canceled in the recent past due to the commercialization and privatization of these rural community resources in the country.
Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)
Urban self-employment and urban wage-employment are the two special schemes under it. It substituted in December 1997 various programmes operated earlier for urban poverty alleviation.
It is funded on a 75: 25 basis between the Union and the States. The expenditure under this scheme was only Rs. 45.5 crore at the revised stage.
It was Rs. 39.21 crores in 2001-02 and an allocation of Rs. 105 crore was provided for 2002-03 (Economic Survey, 2002-03, p.217).
Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
The concept of an Integrated Rural Development Programme was first proposed in the central budget for 1976-77, and a beginning was made in this regard.
This programme was intended to assist the rural population to derive economic benefits from the development of assets of each area.
The programme with some modifications was introduced on an expanded scale in 1978-79, beginning with 2,300 blocks, of which 2000 were under common coverage with SFDA, DPAP, and CADP, with another 300 blocks added up during 1979-80.
Its coverage was extended to all the blocks of the country since October 2, 1980.
Besides the smaller and marginal farmers, this programme was more specific in regard to agricultural workers and landless laborers and additionally brought within its purview rural artisans also.
The programme emphasized the family rather than the individual approach in the identification of the beneficiaries.