Fundamental duties of India Constitution
The original constitution enforced on 26th January 1950 does not mention anything about the duties of the citizens. It was thought that the citizens would perform duties willingly and did not go as expected.
Then ten fundamental duties were added in Part IVA of the Indian Constitution. It defines as Fundamental duties in Article 51A and it shall be the duty of every citizen of India. The fundamental duties of citizens were added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976 by the recommendation of the Swaran Singh Committee.
But the constitution does mention anything about enforcing these duties. The fundamental rights are justiciable and the fundamental duties are non-justiciable.
Then in 2009, the eleventh fundamental duty is added after the Right to Education Act, 2009. “A parent or guardian has to provide opportunities for the education of his child/ward between the age of six and fourteen years”.
11 Fundamental duties of Indian Constitution are:
By Article 51a of the Indian constitution 11 fundamental duties are mentioned they are:
- To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National flag and the National Anthem;
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
- To promote harmony and the spirit of universal brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures;
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform
- To safeguard public property and to abjure violence
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.
- Who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.
Fundamental duties are non-justiciable
It means that the violation of fundamental duties by the citizens is not punishable.
Importance of Fundamental Duties in India
The Citizens of India must abide by the Constitution, defend it from external aggression, promote harmony among its people and protect its environment.
How the constitution does not make the enjoyment of rights dependent. Also the condition upon the fulfilment of the duties. As a result, the inclusion of fundamental rights does change the status of the fundamental rights.
The fundamental rights come with an obligation to show respect for others and accompany rights in form of Fundamental duties. We have right to enjoy the public facilities such as Education, Road, Health etc but it also becomes our duty to allow others to avail the same.
We have the right to freedom and it becomes our duty not to misuse freedom and harm others.
Nature of Fundamental Duties
The fundamental duties mentioned in the Indian constitution are just like the code of ethics. As the fundamental duties are non-justiciable, therefore there is no legal sanction behind them.
Also, some duties are really vague as the common citizen, it is not easy to understand certain terms such ‘composite culture’, ‘rich heritage’, ‘excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activities.
Swaran singh committee Upsc
Swaran Singh committee was set up in Congress by Indira Gandhi in 1976 to draft fundamental duties. It was felt necessary during emergencies (1975-1977). The committee recommended the inclusion of a separate chapter on fundamental duties.
On his recommendations, fundamental duties were added to the Indian constitution by Article 51A.